Further vowel changes

English translation by Bruna Pogliano

Besides the vowel changes which have already been described, further vowel changes can occur in the formation of words, in the declension of nouns and adjectives, as well as in the inflection of verbs.

  1. when followed by a dark timbre vowel (shortening in hiatus);


βασιλων >βασιλων, of the kings;
ληός > λεώς, people; this word exemplifies also quantitative metathesis;
  1. when a long vowel is followed by Ϝ, λ, μ, ν, ρ followed in turn by another consonant (Osthoff's law);
example: *γνωντες >γνντες, those knowing;
Osthoff's law does not apply to 3rd person plural of the subjunctive middle voice:
example: the form λύωνται, 3rd person plural subjunctive middle voice, does not change to λύονται in order to retain the distinction between subjunctive and indicative middle forms;
  1. when a long vowel is the first vowel in a diphthong followed by a consonant:
example *λυθηιμεν > λυθεῖμεν, we would have been released.
  1. ηᾰ > εᾱ; ex. βασιλῆα > βασιλέα, king (accusative);
  2. ηο > εω; es. νηός > νεώς, of the ship.
example: πόλεων, of cities, could be considered as ˘ ˉ instead of ˘ ˘ ˉ for metrical purposes, as such it would involve synizesis.
example: κατλιπον, I left, becomes*κάτλιπον, which in turn becomes κάλλιπον as a result of regressive assimilation.
example: κατά > κάτ; παρά > πάρ.
Greek Latin Translation
I milk
-Ϝικοσι > εἴκοσι